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Galphai1 and Galphai3 differentially interact with, and regulate, the G protein-activated K+ channel.

Tatiana Ivanina, Dalia Varon, Sagit Peleg, Ida Rishal, Yuri Porozov, Carmen W Dessauer, Tal Keren-Raifman, Nathan Dascal

J. Biol. Chem., 2004 Apr 23 , 279, 17260-8

G protein-activated K(+) channels (GIRKs; Kir3) are activated by direct binding of Gbetagamma subunits released from heterotrimeric G proteins. In native tissues, only pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins of the G(i/o) family, preferably Galpha(i3) and Galpha(i2), are donors of Gbetagamma for GIRK. How this specificity is achieved is not known. Here, using a pull-down method, we confirmed the presence of Galpha(i3-GDP) binding site in the N terminus of GIRK1 and identified novel binding sites in the N terminus of GIRK2 and in the C termini of GIRK1 and GIRK2. The non-hydrolyzable GTP analog, guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate, reduced the binding of Galpha(i3) by a factor of 2-4. Galpha(i1-GDP) bound to GIRK1 and GIRK2 much weaker than Galpha(i3-GDP). Titrated expression of components of signaling pathway in Xenopus oocytes and their activation by m2 muscarinic receptors revealed that G(i3) activates GIRK more efficiently than G(i1), as indicated by larger and faster agonist-evoked currents. Activation of GIRK by purified Gbetagamma in excised membrane patches was strongly augmented by coexpression of Galpha(i3) and less by Galpha(i1). Differences in physical interactions of GIRK with GDP-bound Galpha subunits, or Galphabetagamma heterotrimers, may dictate different extents of Galphabetagamma anchoring, influence the efficiency of GIRK activation by Gbetagamma, and play a role in determining signaling specificity.