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Fenamates as TRP channel blockers: mefenamic acid selectively blocks TRPM3.

Chihab Klose, Isabelle Straub, Marc Riehle, Felicia Ranta, Dietmar Krautwurst, Susanne Ullrich, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Christian Harteneck

Br. J. Pharmacol., 2011 Apr , 162, 1757-69

Fenamates are N-phenyl-substituted anthranilic acid derivatives clinically used as non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs in pain treatment. Reports describing fenamates as tools to interfere with cellular volume regulation attracted our attention based on our interest in the role of the volume-modulated transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPM3 and TRPV4.Firstly, we measured the blocking potencies and selectivities of fenamates on TRPM3 and TRPV4 as well as TRPC6 and TRPM2 by Ca(2+) imaging in the heterologous HEK293 cell system. Secondly, we further investigated the effects of mefenamic acid on cytosolic Ca(2+) and on the membrane voltage in single HEK293 cells that exogenously express TRPM3. Thirdly, in insulin-secreting INS-1E cells, which endogenously express TRPM3, we validated the effect of mefenamic acid on cytosolic Ca(2+) and insulin secretion.We identified and characterized mefenamic acid as a selective and potent TRPM3 blocker, whereas other fenamate structures non-selectively blocked TRPM3, TRPV4, TRPC6 and TRPM2.This study reveals that mefenamic acid selectively inhibits TRPM3-mediated calcium entry. This selectivity was further confirmed using insulin-secreting cells. K(ATP) channel-dependent increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) and insulin secretion were not blocked by mefenamic acid, but the selective stimulation of TRPM3-dependent Ca(2+) entry and insulin secretion induced by pregnenolone sulphate were inhibited. However, the physiological regulator of TRPM3 in insulin-secreting cells remains to be elucidated, as well as the conditions under which the inhibition of TRPM3 can impair pancreatic β-cell function. Our results strongly suggest mefenamic acid is the most selective fenamate to interfere with TRPM3 function.