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Genotypes of the pancreatic beta-cell K-ATP channel and clinical phenotypes of Japanese patients with persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia of infancy.

Kumiko Ohkubo, Mariko Nagashima, Yuko Naito, Tomoaki Taguchi, Sachiyo Suita, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Hideshi Fujinaga, Kumi Tsumura, Kiyoshi Kikuchi, Junko Ono

Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf), 2005 Apr , 62, 458-65

OBJECTIVE: Persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia of infancy (PHHI) is a disorder of glucose metabolism that is characterized by dysregulated secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells. This disease has been reported to be associated with mutations of the sulfonylurea receptor SUR1 (ABCC8) or the inward-rectifying potassium channel Kir6.2 (KCNJ11), which are two subunits of the pancreatic beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium channel. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 14 Japanese PHHI patients, all exons of SUR1 and Kir6.2 genes were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. Four patients responded to diazoxide, and nine patients underwent a subtotal pancreatectomy. Histologically, seven patients were diagnosed to have a focal form and two a diffuse form of the disease. RESULTS: We found nine novel mutations in the SUR1 gene and two in the Kir6.2 gene. In the SUR1 gene mutations, three were nonsense mutations (Y512X, Y1354X and G1469X), one was a one-base deletion in exon 7, and two were missense mutations in the nucleotide-binding domain 2 (K1385Q, R1487K). The other three mutations occurred in introns 14, 29 and 36, which might cause aberrant splicing of RNA. Two siblings in one family were heterozygotes for a missense mutation, K1385Q, which was maternally inherited. In Kir6.2 gene screening, one patient was found to be a compound heterozygote of a missense mutation (R34H) and a one-base deletion (C344fs/ter). CONCLUSION: The novel mutations reported here could be pathological candidates for PHHI in Japan. They also reveal that SUR1 and Kir6.2 mutations in the Japanese population exhibit heterogeneity and that they occurred at a frequency similar to other genetic populations.